Account 08.08 of accounting for what is intended?
Non-current assets - fixed assetsThe enterprise, which will subsequently be distributed to other accounting accounts. Here, all the data is collected not only about the cost of the OS and NMA, but also the costs of their acquisition. The account 08 08 is intended just for such purposes. Let's consider in detail its characteristics and significance in the system of accounting for the assets of the enterprise.
Composition of non-current assets
The property rights of this group include fixed assets and intangible assets, which are planned to be used at the enterprise for more than a year. It consists of:
- OS, owned by the enterprise and involved in the production process. In this case, for a long time, property does not lose its natural-material form.
- Investments of a long-term nature and in the form of capital.
- Any forms of NMA.
- Other noncurrent assets.
The property of the enterprise relating to thiscategory of funds, takes a leading place in the activities of the enterprise, especially in production cycles. During the period of its use, the cost is gradually transferred to the finished product in the form of depreciation charges.
There are active and passive parts of non-currentassets. The first category includes the most mobile and dynamic means. For example, industrial equipment, office cars. The second group includes real estate: buildings and buildings, which create the initial conditions for the work of employees of the enterprise.
Account 08 08 and its purpose
With the concept of non-current assets,Only now it remains unclear: why do you need a separate account for them, if you already created 01 and 04? To understand the essence of the issue, let us recall the rules of admission to the accounting of the OS and NMA.
According to the requirements of the PBU, an accountant mustto reflect on the account fixed assets and NMA at the initial cost, which includes all actual costs for their acquisition. Often it happens that information about all amounts comes not immediately. Here, there is a need to open an account 08, which will collect data on the articles of expenditure for the acquisition of property. As soon as the accounting department takes into account all the amounts and the property will be ready for commissioning, the information can be written off to the main account 01 or 04.
08 the account is active, it collects information about the means of the enterprise. All relevant costs for the acquisition of property are reflected in the debit. When writing off the amount shown in the credit of the account. At the end of the reporting month, a debit balance can be formed. As a rule, these are the sums of expenses for the objects of unfinished construction and OS that have not been put into operation. If there is no balance, the account is closed.
The balance on debit, if any, should be reflected in the financial statements. Account 08 in the balance is included in line 1190, which characterizes the value of other non-current assets.
To combine similar costs into groups and to systematize accounting, sub-accounts of the first level are also opened, which reflect information on costs for:
- 08.1 - acquisition of land plots;
- 08.2 - purchase of nature use facilities;
- 08.3 - construction of OS facilities;
- 08.4 - purchase of separate OS by categories;
- 08.5 - acquisition of the NMA;
- 08.6 - transfer of livestock from one herd to another;
- 08.7 - purchase of adult livestock;
- 08.8 - performing scientific research, conducting experiments, the results of which will be used in the future at the enterprise.
If necessary, other analytical accounts of a similar nature can be opened.
Receipt of non-current assets
Most often the enterprise acquires propertythrough the contract of sale. In this case, the algorithm for taking it into account is clear: you need to collect all the costs on account 08, and then write them off when commissioned on the main accounts. But there are other ways in which assets are transferred to the ownership of the enterprise. Basically, this is the result of barter or contribution to the initial capital, there are frequent and gratuitous receipts.
For each method of obtaining property, away of accounting 08 accounts and the method of calculating the initial cost. When the act of gift is completed, an appropriate contract is drawn up, in which the market value for the transferred objects is indicated. This will be the amount that should be reflected by posting Дт 08 Кт 98 "Gratuitous receipts".
Contribution to capital and transfer of goods for the needs of the enterprise
If one of the founders of an enterprise makes a contribution to the authorized capital in the form of fixed assets or intangible assets, they should be registered, based on the following rules:
- Evaluate the incoming assets by agreeing with the participants of the GS or AO. At the same time, the value of the property should not exceed the market value.
- After determining the amount of the initial value, carry out the account assignment Дт 08 Кт 75.
Thus, to account on the account 08 fixed assets from the founders were adopted. The information will be kept in the debit until the property is put into operation.
Goods or finished products transferred insideenterprises to implement its needs are accounted for at actual cost, the amount of which can be found on accounts 41 or 43. The posting is as follows: Дт 08 Кт 43 (41).
The barter agreement
The registration of property received afterbarter, differs depending on the conditions of its conduct. So, if both sides recognize the barter as equivalent, then they do not take on any additional obligations. A surcharge is not required, but how much is charged to the account 08 08 when the asset is received? In this case, as the initial price is the market value of the property retired for barter. If it is impossible to determine it, use the indicator of the possible purchase price of the incoming property.
After agreeing the terms of the barter transaction betweenenterprises acquired assets can not be considered their own property. The right to own property passes after the fulfillment of obligations by each of the counterparties. Up to this point, the amount is recorded on the off-balance account 002. After completing all the clauses of the contract and obtaining property rights, the accountant writes off the amounts in KT 002.
Further registration of the parish is carried out according to the usual procedure for receiving the OS or NMA:
- Дт 08 Кт 60 - the amount of the incoming OS (the amount without VAT) is taken into account.
- Дт 19 Кт 60 - VAT on purchased property is reflected.
- Дт 01 Кт 08 - the object was put into operation and accepted for recording.
Account 08 08: typical posting
Having studied the specifics of determining the initial value of assets and registering them, consider the main account assignments:Typical entries for account 08
|Dt||Cm||Description of the business operation|
|08.1||10||Considered the cost of materials for the purchase of land|
|08.4||75.1||Accepted NMA from the founders as a contribution to the initial capital|
|08||02||Accumulated depreciation of the OS|
|08.3||10||The materials used in construction|
|08.6||11||Young cattle moved to an adult herd|
|08.8||70||The expenses for the development of innovations include the salaries of scientists|
|08.8||08.3||Transferred to conservation equipment|
|08||19||The cost of acquiring the OS includes VAT paid from it and not reimbursed by the state|
|08||60||Payments are received from suppliers for purchased property|
|08||66||Interest accrued for the use of short-term loans for the purchase of OS and NMA|
|08||69||Insurance payments to employees involved in the creation of the NMA|
|08||80||Assets received as a contribution to joint activities|
|08||98.2||At market value, gratuitously received assets|
|08||86||Property received in the form of investments|
08 the accounting account for the loan reflects the amount of write-down of the property when:
- putting it into operation;
- losses as a result of emergency;
- The shortages revealed after the inventory;
- sale or partial liquidation.
Indicators of non-current assets mainlycharacterize the activities of the enterprise. From the accuracy of calculating the initial value of property depends on the further organization of accounting of the OS and NMA. Account 08 is just created to collect the necessary information on incoming assets in order to fully reflect all types of costs for their acquisition.