Buddhism: holidays, traditions, customs
The history of Buddhism has a long durationin time, as well as many followers to date. The beginning of this religion has its own romantic legend, which will be described in this article. Also in Buddhism, a sufficient number of large and small holidays, the meaning of which differs significantly from traditional ones.
Buddhism - one of the world's religions
Buddhism is considered one of the first historicalreligions (two more are Christianity and Islam). However, if we compare it with the other two, it turns out that the definition of a philosophical and religious system is more suitable for Buddhism, since it is not necessary to talk about God in the usual sense. He's just not here.
Some researchers are inclined to believe thatBuddhism is very close to the world of science, because there is a thirst for knowledge of the laws of the surrounding world (nature, human soul, the universe). In addition, according to the tradition of Buddhism, it is believed that the human life after the death of the body takes a different form, and does not go into oblivion. This is very similar to the law on the conservation of matter in the world or its transition to another aggregate state.
Since ancient times, this teachinga wide range of views gathered many true thinkers, scientists of various fields, outstanding doctors. This is precisely what the Buddhist monasteries were famous for, and also their books on scientific topics.
By the way, Buddhism also celebrates its holidaysdedicates the acquisition of new knowledge through enlightenment (if anyone succeeds). Some of them are revealed through the representations that monks play (for example, the mystery of Tsam).
Childhood and adolescence of Gautam Buddha
The birth and appearance of the future founderworld religion is shrouded in legends and mysticism. In its origin, Buddha was an Indian prince, who was called Siddhartha Gautama. His conception is mysterious and intriguing. The mother of the future enlightened dream somehow dreamed that a white elephant entered her side. After a while she discovered that she was pregnant, and nine months later she gave birth to a male baby. The boy was called Siddhartha, which means "fulfilled his purpose". The mother of the baby could not bear birth and died a couple of days later. This determined the feelings that the ruler, his father, felt for Siddhartha. He loved his wife very much, and when she was no more, she transferred all the unspent love to her son.
By the way, Buddha's birthday isquite a controversial date, which, however, is fixed to date. Since in Buddhism the counting by the lunar calendar is taken, the eighth day of the lunar month of weight is considered the moment of the founder's birth. However, they did not come to a compromise with the year of birth.
The born to the boy sage Asita wasForetold a great future, namely, the accomplishment of a great religious feat. Of course, his father did not want him, he did not want his son to make a religious career. This he defined the children's years of Gautama and the subsequent ones. Though from the very beginning he was inclined to dreams and dreams, he was able to feel brief moments of enlightenment. Buddha from the very childhood aspired to solitude and deep contemplation.
However, the father was against all this. Surrounding his son with luxury and all the blessings, having married him to a beautiful girl, and also hiding from his eyes all the bad side of this world (poverty, hunger, illness, etc.), he hoped that the hill was forgotten, the alarming moods chased away. However, this did not lead to the expected result, and after a while the hidden became apparent.
According to legend, once on the street he saw a funeral,patient and ascetic. All this made an indelible impression on him. He realized that the world is not as he knows it, and is full of suffering. The same night he left his house.
Buddhism and Buddhist preaching
The next period of the Buddha is the search for truth. On his way, he met many trials - from a simple study of philosophical treatises to ascetic asceticism. However, nothing answered the questions. Only once, after he refused all false teachings, thinned the soul of previous research, came the insight. What happened was what he had been waiting for all these years. He saw not only his life in the true light, but also the life of other people, all the connections between the material and the immaterial. Now he knew ...
From that moment on he became the Buddha, the Enlightened One andwho saw the truth. His teachings Gautam preached for forty years, traveling between villages and cities. Death came to him at the age of eighty, after farewell words. This day is revered no less than the birthday of the Buddha, as well as the moment when epiphany came to him.
The formation of Buddhism as a religion
It should be noted that Buddhism itself is very fastspread throughout the territory of India, as well as South-East and Central Asia, penetrated into Siberia and Central Asia. During its formation several directions of this doctrine appeared, some of them carry a rational grain, others - a mystical one.
One of the most important is the traditionMahayana. Her followers believe that it is very important to maintain a compassionate attitude towards other living beings. In their opinion, the meaning of spiritual enlightenment is to achieve it, and then to continue to live in this world for its benefit.
Also in this tradition, Sanskrit is used for religious texts.
Another direction, which is quite large andwas formed from Mahayana, called Vajrayana. The second name is Tantric Buddhism. The customs of Vajrayana Buddhism are connected by mystical practices, where powerful symbols are used to influence the subconscious person. This allows you to use all the resources in the full program and promotes the Buddhist movement to the point of enlightenment. By the way, for today elements of this direction are present and in some traditions as separate parts.
Another big and very commonthe direction is Theravada. Today it is the only school that starts its life from the first traditions. The teaching is based on the Pali Canon, which is compiled in the Pali language. It is believed that it is these writings (though in a distorted form, since they were transmitted verbally for a long time) that Buddha's words are most truthfully conveyed. This teaching also believes that enlightenment can reach the most devoted follower. Thus, in the whole history of Buddhism, twenty-eight similar enlightenments have already been counted. These Buddhas are also especially revered by those who profess this religion.
However, it should be noted that the main dates of the holidays coincide in almost all traditions.
Some traditions of this teaching (family and others)
So, among other things, there is a Buddhismmany different traditions. For example, the attitude towards marriage in this religion is special. Nobody forces anyone, but nevertheless there is no binge and betrayal. In the Buddhist tradition of family life, there are some recommendations on how to make her happy and dignified. The founder of the doctrine gave only some recommendations that one should be faithful, not flirt and not incite feelings in oneself not to your spouse or wife. In addition, it should not be outraged and have sex outside of marriage.
However, there is nothing against it, if a person does notenters into family relations, as this is a personal matter for everyone. It is believed that, if necessary, people can disperse by mutual consent, if living together is no longer possible. However, such a need is rare in the event that a man and a woman will clearly follow the rules and precepts of the Buddha. He also advised not to marry those people who have a big age difference (for example, an elderly man and a young woman).
In principle, marriage in Buddhism is an opportunity for joint development, support in all of each other. It is also an opportunity to avoid loneliness (if it is difficult to live with it), fear and deprivation.
Buddhist monasteries and the way of life of monks
Followers of this teaching usually live inSanghah communities that occupy a particular Buddha temple. Monks are not clergymen in our usual understanding. They just go there teaching, studying the sacred texts, meditating. Anyone can become a member of such a community (both man and woman).
Each direction of the teaching has its own set of rules,which should be strictly observed by monastic followers. Some of them forbid eating meat, some prescribe to engage in agricultural activities, while others forbid interfering in social and political life (monks live on alms).
Thus, one who has become a follower of the Buddha must abide by the rules and not depart from them.
The meaning of the holidays in Buddhism
If we talk about a religion like Buddhism,holidays here have a special status. They are not celebrated the way we do. In Buddhism, a holiday is a special day, which has more restrictions than permissions. According to their beliefs, these days there is an increase in a thousand times all mental and physical acts, as well as their consequences (as well as positive and negative). It is believed that the observance of all large dates allows us to understand the nature and essence of the teachings, to approach the Absolute as close as possible.
The essence of the celebration is to create purityaround yourself and in yourself. This can be achieved through special rituals of Buddhism, as well as the repetition of mantras, playing musical instruments (meaning the sounds that they shed), the use of certain cult objects. All this leads to the fact that a person regains a fine structure, which significantly clears his mind. On a festive day it is necessary to perform such an action as visiting the temple, and also to make an offering to the Community, Teacher, Buddhas.
It is not considered shameful in the Buddhist tradition andcelebrating the house, after all the most important thing is a spirit, and also knowledge of what it is generally needed for. It is believed that every person, even without being in a crowd of the same celebrating, can, after an appropriate adjustment, join the general field of the celebration.
Holidays of Buddhism: Visakha Puja
There are various holidays of Buddhism, the listwhich is large enough. Let's consider the most important of them. For example, one of these holidays for all Buddhists is Vishakha Puja. He is the symbol of the three events that occurred in the life of the founder of this teaching - birth, enlightenment and departure from life (in nirvana). Many school-followers believe that all these events happened on the same day.
Celebrate this holiday in a big way. All temples are decorated with paper lanterns and flower garlands. They put a lot of oil lamps on their territory. Monks read prayers and tell stories about Buddha to laity. This holiday lasts a week.
Holidays of Buddhism: Asalha
If we talk about religious holidays of Buddhism,then this can be attributed to them. He speaks about that doctrine, the Dharma, which was brought to people, and by means of which it was possible to attain enlightenment. The celebration of this event takes place in July (Asalha), on the full moon day.
It should be noted that this day, apart from everythingother, it also points to the foundation of the Sangha. The first in this community were those followers who followed the Buddha and carried out his instructions. It also means that there are three sanctuaries in the world - Buddha, Dharma, Sangha.
Also this day is the beginning of the periodseclusion for monks (vaso). However, this does not mean that at this time you just need to refrain from food. Just in the practice of Sangha is the moment that you can eat only in the morning (from sunrise to noon).
Holidays of Buddhism: Kathin
This day completes the vaso period. It is celebrated at the full moon in October. On this day, the laymen are presented with a special attire for the bhikkhus. The name of this man is called at the time when Kathin is celebrated. After the end of this period (vaso), the monks again set out on their journey.
Therefore, Buddhism holidays are quite diverse. This concludes a certain period of celebration of religious important days, but there are many more.
Mystery of Zam
This is a very interesting annual celebration,which lasts for several days. They perform it in the monasteries of Nepal, Tibet, Buryatia, Mongolia and Tuva. By the way, this mystery could be performed in completely different times - in winter and in summer, and also have a completely different genre.
Ambiguous could be and performance. For example, one Buddha temple created a ritual dance, and another set a play with dialogues that several actors read. And, finally, the third temple in general could supply a multi-component acting view, where there were a large number of participants.
The meaning of this mystery is manifold. For example, with her help one could frighten the enemies of the doctrine, and also demonstrate the true doctrine of false teaching. You could still pacify the evil forces for the next year. Or just prepare a person for the path that he makes after death to the next rebirth.
So, Buddhism holidays have not only a religious nature, but also solemn, as well as sublime.
Other holidays of Buddhism
There are also other holidays of Buddhism, which include:
- New Year;
- the day that is dedicated to the fifteen miracles of the Buddha;
- Kalachakra holiday;
- Loy Krathong;
- Rivers Na and many others.
Thus, we see that there are major holidays of Buddhism and others, which are no less valuable and important, but are noted more modestly.
So, we see that the teaching is prettyfrom the point of view of knowledge and holidays. The long history of Buddhism for all its time has undergone many changes that have transformed the very religion itself. But it did not distort the essence and the way of the person who passed him first and gave certain knowledge to his followers.
All the numerous dates of the holidays in one way or anotherreflect the essence of the teaching. Their annual celebration gives hope and rethinking their deeds to followers. Participating in the general celebration, some are a little closer to the essence of Buddhism and are one step closer to the same enlightenment that the founder was awarded.