Carrying out earthworks. Description
The organization of excavation involves variousEvents. Among them, in particular, should include the excavation and development of soil, its reception, removal and disposal. Execution of excavation includes digging trenches, roadways, channels, dams, embankments, dams. They also include the design and planning of plots, fields, sites, the construction of closed passages in the ground by the type of mines, tunnels, galleries for various underground structures.
Carrying out excavation works is considered one of thebasic elements of hydraulic engineering, civil engineering, transport, industrial construction. They are carried out with the purpose of creation of soil constructions, the device of the bases for buildings, planning of territory for building. Another purpose of excavation is the removal of ground mass for subsequent opening and development of deposits of fossils.
Any construction begins with preparationterritory - construction site. Carrying out excavation works is the determining factor of successful construction in general. The spectrum of the preparatory measures, as already mentioned, is quite wide. Their specific gravity is large and reaches about fifteen percent at a cost and about twenty percent in labor intensity.
From the quality and efficiency of earthworks will bedepend on the pace of construction. To questions of compliance with the deadlines and the accuracy of their implementation at this stage must be approached with the utmost responsibility. Only in this case, the result of construction will justify both the money spent and expectations.
Earthwork includes an inalienablestage - removal of soil. Timely removal of soil from the site is very important. Without rapid cleaning of the construction site can not do at the initial stages of construction. Thanks to the timely removal of soil, the optimal rate of construction is ensured, and labor costs are reduced.
Change in the height of embankments rendersdirect impact on earthworks. In addition, the reduction or increase in the duration and laboriousness of the preparatory phase depends on a number of other factors. So, for example, the ground-hydrologic environment affects the design of the subsoil. From this, in turn, will depend on the choice of certain technologies in the implementation of excavation. Equally important is the season of events for the preparation of the construction site. Thus, the most suitable periods for the removal of soil are summer and autumn periods. At this time, the land is not frozen and has an optimum moisture level.
The choice of the development method depends on the depthfoundation and design features. Belt and low-bottomed columnar bases can be developed manually. The mechanized method is used to prepare soil under the basement with a basement floor and buried foundations. Performing additional work can be avoided with strict observance of technological rules and regulations.
The mechanized method involves the use ofspecial equipment. Machines and units can significantly reduce the labor intensity and the duration of excavation. For example, excavators are used for digging pits and loading dump trucks. When constructing roads or artificial reservoirs, bulldozers are used that can level the soil and form embankment slopes.
In accordance with the chosen method, and alsoused equipment, the cost of excavation is determined. The time of the year during which the preparatory measures are carried out is of great importance.