Communication as an exchange of information
Communication (like the exchange of information) plays a largerole in our lives. There are many means by which information can be transmitted from partner to partner, from person to person. Such methods include speech, pause in speech, timbre of voice, tonality, facial expressions, gestures and laughter. In general, they can be divided into two main groups - verbal and non-verbal.
One of the main means of communication is stillremains the so-called "system of verbal signs," which is used as a means of transferring and assimilating the socio-historical experience of mankind. Possession of such a system allows people to exchange opinions, understand each other and just communicate.
Communication, like the exchange of information, uses techniquescommunicator (specific coding of the transmitted data) and the recipient (decoding of the received message). In the case of different coding systems (for example, the use of different languages), both the communicator and the recipient will not be able to find mutual understanding for carrying out joint activities.
Verbal communication refers to speech, which is distinguished as external and internal. At the same time, external broadcasting covers oral and written speech.
Dialogue characterizes the simplest aspects of communication. Psychology assigns a rather important role to him. An example is the dependence of the success of negotiations on the effectiveness of the dialogue.
A monologue also characterizes oral speech, butonly one person. Basically, this type of communication is used for lectures and lectures. There are increased requirements for the selection of words, a clear construction of proposals and strict logic.
Communication, as information exchange, is quite widespreadIt is used in the modern world in the form of written speech. It arose a little later than oral speech, and its main purpose is to convey information to people in the distance. The instrument of such communication is the sign system.
By non-verbal means of communication can be attributedfacial expressions, the appearance of a person, gestures, laughter, exchange of photographs, objects, drawings, as well as the spatial placement of interlocutors. These tools are an effective complement to speech utterances. The most important among them is the appearance of a person, presented in the form of clothes and manners.
To meet the needs of mankind in joint activity, three sides of communication are singled out:
- Perceptual (people's perception of each other);
- communicative (exchange of information between people);
- Interactive (interaction between people in the process of communication).
To summarize the above material, it is necessary to distinguish such basic types of communication:
- "Contact of masks", which is aformal communication. As an exchange of information, he uses familiar masks, reflecting politeness, severity, indifference, modesty and compassion. In a big city, people often use it to isolate themselves from others.
- Formally-role communication, clearly regulated in the content and means. It is based on the social role of the interlocutor, not his personality.
- Business communication, which takes into account the characteristics of age, character, personality and mood of the interlocutor. However, the interests of the case are put on the first place, and the personal characteristics are placed on the second.
- Spiritual or interpersonal communication, allowingfriends to touch any topic. It is not necessary for him to use words-friend's understanding is possible by movements, facial expression, intonation. Such communication becomes real only with an excellent knowledge of the interlocutor's personality, and also if the interlocutor is well aware of the interests, convictions of the other, and therefore his reactions can easily be reproduced.