Establishment of the Senate in Russia and its features
The Senate in Russia came to replace the Boyar Duma. It was created as the supreme body of state administration, endowed with broad powers, right up to the adoption of laws. Emperor Peter the Great, as we know, very often left the capital, transferring for this time the administration of the country to some loyal associates who were supposed to solve issues of national importance in his absence. Traveling, the king became acquainted with the traditions of European countries in the conduct of domestic politics, the management of foreign monarchs by their states. The establishment of the Senate was yet another attempt to bring Russia closer to Europe. In addition, such a body was very useful for governing the country. The date of its establishment is considered February 22, 1711.
Initially, the Senate was created as a higherthe state governing body for the time of the absence of the emperor. All those who entered it were appointed by Peter himself. They were, as a rule, his entourage: Prince Golitsyn, Count Musin-Pushkin, Prince Dolgoruky. The emperor appointed the Ancestor of the Senate Anisim Shchukin, whose duties henceforth included administering the imperial chancellery and overseeing the order during the senate sessions. Over time, a system of institutions subordinated to him was created around the Senate. The role of the mediator between the ruling governing body and the country's provinces was carried out by commissioners (two persons each). Their duty was to monitor the implementation of the decrees passed by the Senate, as well as the execution of his instructions directly on the ground.
Despite the fact that the institution of the Senateinitially was a temporary measure of state management, after the termination of the permanent absence of the emperor from the country, the role of this body not only did not decrease, but also increased significantly.
The activities of the Senate itself extended toall spheres of life of the country's population. From now on he could appoint all civil and military posts, manage the military estate, keep records of persons who are hiding from military service, recruit recruits into the Russian army. To conduct business of the class estate in 1722 under the Senate a new post is established - a herald master. A special role in the main state body was assigned to so-called fiscal officials, whose duty was to supervise everything that happens on the territory of the country, the disclosure of crimes and conviction of their perpetrators in court.
The establishment of the Senate presupposed the creation of a singlea full-fledged body of state power in charge of which is the country's domestic policy. Its creation was an important step towards the emergence of a new judicial process in Russia. Thus, in 1722, the Procuracy was established under the Senate. The activities of this institute went far beyond its scope and extended to all central and local judicial and administrative institutions. The highest post at the Prosecutor's Office belonged to the Prosecutor General, his assistant was the Chief Prosecutor. If previously unjust actions of senators could be appealed, by appealing directly to the sovereign himself, then from 1714 such complaints began to be punishable by death. Thus, the establishment of the Senate contributed to the formation of a separate institution of power capable of making important decisions for the country without the presence of the emperor himself.
The main seat of the senators forFor several years, Moscow remained, and since 1714 this management body has moved to the recently built St. Petersburg, which becomes the main place of its location and activity.
The creation of the Senate was only the first step on the wayorganization of the emperor of a powerful apparatus of government. He was followed by the formation of colleges, the introduction at the court of the post of the Prosecutor General, the establishment of the famous Table of Ranks, the publication of a decree on the common heritage, and so on.