Feudal disintegration in Russia
Feudal disunity in Russia, reasonswhich is hidden in the economic and political development of the early feudal society, existed until the end of the 15th century. The formation of large landownership against the background of the prevalence of subsistence farming in the Old Russian state inevitably facilitated the transfer of estates into independent production complexes. At the same time, their economic ties were limited to the surrounding district. The handicraft and trade needs that existed at that time could easily be met in the rapidly growing political and economic centers-cities. At the same time, the number of cities grew and the population was added due to the rise of the productive forces. Developed and those settlements that previously had no significant economic significance.
Feudal disunity in Russia was formingin conditions of inevitable social contradictions between the lower classes and the tops of the early feudal society. The resulting class of land owners sought to establish in various forms of dependence (both legal and economic) of the agricultural population. However, the class antagonisms (disputes) that took place in the 11th and 13th centuries had a character, mostly local, and as a rule, local authorities had enough interference to resolve conflicts, without involving state forces.
Feudal disintegration in Russia took place inconditions of the need for social and economic independence of boyar-patrimony (large landowners) from the central government. At the same time, the boyars were against the need to share their incomes with the Grand Prince. In addition, they supported the rulers in individual principalities in their struggle for political and economic independence.
Feudal disunity in Russia wasfact inevitable. As part of this process, further development of the culture and economy of the state as a whole took place. At the same time, it is necessary to speak of a more stable establishment of the system of relations between feudal lords.
Undoubtedly, the disintegration of the former united statehad some negative consequences. The main one is historians call the weakening of the protection of the country's lands from an external attack, especially if a fairly strong invader is likely to emerge.
Feudal fragmentation in Russia outwardly represented an actual division of the country's territory between members of a greatly enlarged princely family.
It should be noted that individual signs of decaybegan to appear after his death in 1054 Yaroslav the Wise. The system of segregated principalities arose as a result of the struggle between its descendants, who enjoyed the support of local boyars.
For a short period, during the reignVladimir Monomakh, the rise of Kiev happened. It again became an all-Russian center. During this period, the separatist sentiments of the local rulers were suppressed, the external enemy - the Polovtsians - was defeated.
The country again fell into decay with the death of Monomakh. At the same time, feudal fragmentation begins in Russia. The causes and consequences of this period are of historical significance for the whole country.
After the death of the son of Monomakh, Mstislav the Great,On the spot of one state, about fifteen independent regions were formed. Among them are Polotsk, Chernigov, Galicia, Novgorod, Rostov-Suzdal, Smolensk and others. At the same time, within each of them, the process of political fragmentation and economic isolation continued. Thus, each of the parts of a large state was, in turn, transformed into a system of small semi-independent principalities.