Form of state. device: what it is
Form of state. devices - a kind of administrative-territorial principle of reproduction of political power, organized in such a way as to achieve maximum effectiveness of public management. The latter, as we know, is a rather complex structure, where many individual, collective and class interests are intertwined. Therefore, in order to optimize the management structure, the state on its territory artificially divides the space into relatively independent subjects, in which it reproduces identical administrative structures (state institutions and their representative offices).
Concept and forms of state. devices
Thus, it is not just about optimizingthe principle of territorial arrangement of power, but also about fixing a model of vertical or horizontal management. In democracies, the basic functions of management are distributed among local (communal) management bodies. The state in this case only performs the functions of supervision, control and strategic planning. In authoritarian regimes, on the contrary, emphasis is placed on building a "power vertical", hierarchically clan manageability. Therefore, the main political functionality is given to administrations managed from the center.
Form of state. The device also depends on the entrenched practices and features of the historical device. It is generally accepted that there are three main forms in the world - unitary, federal and democratic. Consider them in order.
A unitary state is a country where regions are nothave the right to autonomy. Therefore, they can not pursue their own internal and foreign policies, and also have their representations on the international arena. True, there are also "in general" unitary states, but with their own internal autonomous formations, for example, Ukraine and Spain. Often, this imbalance between different territories provokes conflict situations, especially if autonomy has significant economic potential. Form of state. devices in such countries is extremely unstable and can change under the pressure of both internal and external factors.
Federated States, as a rule,were formed on the basis of separate sovereign territories, similar mentally, culturally and ethnically. This type is widely represented by former empires and regions that were collected by extra-legal means - the FRG, the USA, the Russian Federation. In this case, the form of state. The device is oriented both at securing national integrity and on politico-economic retention of potentially conflict areas. It should be noted that there is a transfer of some of the sovereign rights to the federal center in exchange for security guarantees. Therefore, despite the complexity of the historical past, such countries are firmly "linked" entities, united by a single idea and a "development plan" that cements the uniqueness of the nation.
Confederation is a temporary formationsovereign states to achieve certain goals. This form of state. devices - a fairly rare phenomenon and practically does not occur in the modern world.
Form of state. The structure of Russia is a federation, which includes republics, territories, autonomous regions and districts. Such a complex design is due to two factors. First, the peculiarity of the ethnic and national composition of the Russian state. And in other, significant territorial areas, which are easier to manage, relying on relatively small administrative units (entities).