Hematocrit - lowered, elevated and normal
Hematocrit is the percentage (in percent)erythrocytes from the volume of blood (total). This indicator reflects the ratio of the volume of plasma and the volume of erythrocytes. Thus, for example, in a patient who is in a state of shock, a decrease in hematocrit may not occur, whereas as a result of blood loss, the amount of red blood cells in general may decrease. Therefore, the percentage can not be used by assessing the degree of anemia in the near future after blood transfusion or blood loss.
Hematocrit may also be decreased ifwhen taking the analysis, the patient is lying down. With prolonged compression of the vein harness, a falsely elevated result can be observed. A falsely low hematocrit may also be due to fluid dilution. This happens when the blood for analysis is taken from the same limb, into which there was absolutely immediately before this intravenous infusion.
Determination of the percentage of red blood cells by volumeplasma and color index helps in diagnosing many diseases, especially if they are associated with a change in hemoglobin content. It should be noted that a separate analysis of the hemoglobin level does not yield much information. The measurement of this indicator in combination with the color index of erythrocytes and hematocrit gives a more detailed idea of the state of the blood.
For example, there is a blood test with a loweredhemoglobin. It should be noted that this indicator can be due to various reasons. As factors, iron deficiency anemia, as well as anemia associated with latent bleeding or elevated hemolysis, can act. Having conducted additional studies, it can be revealed that the cause of anemia can be the loss of red blood cells, and its consequence, respectively, is a reduced hematocrit. Having determined the color index, they reveal violations in the synthesis of hemoglobin itself. This allows you to determine what kind of anemia is: hyperchromic, hypochromic or normochromic.
The normal hematocrit in adults andchildren, men and women are different. For example, the figure is 33.0-44.5% for men and 38.0-49.0% for women aged twenty to twenty nine.
Hematocrit lowered is characteristic of anemia,which are due to a decrease in the number of red blood cells. These conditions are associated, as a rule, with hemolysis or blood loss. Hematocrit may also be lower in conditions that cause an increase in the volume of circulating blood. This is noted during pregnancy, hyperalbumia, or when eating salt in large quantities.
The color index may decrease whenreduction of hemoglobin synthesis. This leads to a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in erythrocytes. Reducing the color index is also characteristic for the state in which the size of erythrocytes (microcytosis) decreases. An increase in the color index is noted in macrocytosis. In this case the erythrocyte increases and contains more hemoglobin. This phenomenon is observed with folic anemia, hypothyroidism, cytotoxic therapy.