Main plant tissue: full characteristic
Tissues are structures consisting of many similar cells that are united by common functions. All multicellular animals and plants (with the exception of algae) consist of different types of tissues.
What are the fabrics?
In animals, tissues are divided into four types:
- nerve tissue.
All of them, with the exception of the nervous one, are subdivided,in turn, on the species. So, the epithelium can be cubic, flat, cylindrical, ciliate and sensitive. Muscle tissues are divided into striped, smooth and cardiac. The connective group combines fatty, dense fibrous, loose fibrous, reticular, bone and cartilage, blood and lymph.
Vegetable tissues come in the following types:
- mechanical fabric;
- excretory (secretory);
- the main tissue (parenchyma).
All of them are divided into subgroups. So, the educational tissues include apical, intercalary, lateral and wound. Conductors are divided into xylem and phloem. Cover tissues are joined by three types: epidermis, cork and crust. The mechanical is divided into a collenchyma and a sclerenchyma. Secretory tissue is not divided into species. And the main plant tissue, like all other plants, is of several kinds. Let us consider them in more detail.
What is the main tissue of plants?
There are four of its kinds. So, the basic fabric happens:
They have a similar structure, but they also have some differences from each other. The functions of the basic tissues of these four species are also somewhat different.
Structure of the main fabric: general characteristic
The main tissue of all four species consists ofliving cells with thin walls. Tissues of this type are called so because they form the basis of all the vital organs of the plant. Now let's look at the functions and structure of the basic tissues of each species separately in more detail.
Aquifer: structure and functions
The main fabric of this species is built from largecells with thin walls. In the vacuoles of the cells of this tissue there is a special mucous substance, which is intended to retain moisture.
The functions of the aquifer are that it stores moisture.
There is an aquifer parenchyma in the stems andleaves of plants such as cacti, agave, aloe and others growing in arid climates. Due to the large amount of such tissue, the plant can be stocked with water in case it does not rain for a long time.
Features of airborne parenchyma
Cells of the main tissue of this species are at a distance from each other. Between them are the intercellular spaces, in which air is stored.
The function of this parenchyma is that it supplies cells of other plant tissues with carbon dioxide and oxygen.
There is such a tissue mainly in the body of marsh and aquatic plants. In the land, it is rare.
Assimilation parenchyma: structure and function
It consists of medium-sized cells with thin walls.
Inside the cells of assimilation tissue, there are a large number of chloroplasts - organoids responsible for photosynthesis.
These organelles have two membranes. Inside the chloroplasts are thylakoids - disk-shaped sacs with enzymes contained in them. They are collected in piles of granules. The latter are joined together by lamellas - elongated structures similar to thylakoids. In addition, starch inclusions, ribosomes necessary for protein synthesis, native RNA and DNA are found in chloroplasts.
The process of photosynthesis - the production of organicsubstances from inorganic under the action of enzymes and solar energy - occurs precisely in thylakoids. The main enzyme that provides these chemical reactions is called chlorophyll. This substance is green (it is thanks to it that the leaves and stems of plants have such a color).
So, the functions of the basic tissues of this kind are the photosynthesis mentioned above, as well as gas exchange.
Assimilation tissue is most developed in leavesand the upper layers of the stems of herbaceous plants. It is also present in fruits of green color. Assimilation tissue is not on the surface of the leaves and stems, but under a transparent protective skin.
Features of the reserve parenchyma
The cells of this tissue are characterized as medium in size. Their walls are usually thin, but can also be thickened.
The function of the storing parenchyma is the storage of nutrients. As such, in most cases, starch, inulin, and other carbohydrates, and sometimes proteins, amino acids and fats serve.
There is a tissue of this type in seed germsannual plants, as well as in the endosperm. For perennial grasses, bushes, flowers and trees, the retaining tissue can be found in bulbs, tubers, root crops, and also in the core of the stem.
The main tissue is the most important in the bodyplant, as it is the basis of all organs. Tissues of this type provide all vital processes, including photosynthesis and gas exchange. Also, the main tissues are responsible for the creation of stocks of organic substances (in the largest amount of this starch) in the plants themselves, as well as in their seeds. In addition to nutrient organic compounds, air and water can be stored in the parenchyma. Not all plants possess air-borne and aquiferous tissues. The first are present only in the desert, and the latter - in the marsh species.