Stages of development of the psyche
Stages of development of the human psyche have become known inmuch due to the study of animal consciousness. Descartes initiated anthropopsychism. This theory suggests that the psyche is a phenomenon peculiar only to man. Consciousness as a property of living matter recognizes biopsychism. The connection of the psyche and the nervous system is indicated by a branch of science such as neuropsychism, and panpsychism gives spirituality to all living and non-living things.
In modern times, the science of psychology is basedon the emergence and development of consciousness in the presence of the evolution of matter and, relying on the acquired knowledge, identifies the basic stages of the development of the psyche. Matter is endowed with such a property as reflection, which implies the interpenetrating joint action of objects. The manifestation of reflection is the ability to respond to external stimuli.
Form of existence of matter and features of externalstimuli determine the nature of the reaction. Physical reflection is, for example, an impression of a foot on the sand or a mirror image. Chemical reflection can be represented as the acquisition of a new substance by combining the two initial, and the biological reflection is the transition of inorganic matter to organic matter. The simplest form of biological reflection, characteristic of living organisms, is irritability.
Leontiev embryonic form of mental reflectiondetermines the sensitivity. Its distinctive feature is the emergence of a reaction to an irritant that does not directly participate in the metabolism. The appearance of sensitivity is due to the signal character of reflection, which makes it possible to manifest an active response to a changing environment and to develop individually-isolated behavioral responses. This stage of development characterizes the presence of sense organs, movement and coordinating organ, that is, the nervous system. The stages of the development of the psyche begin precisely with this, the primary stage of the elementary sensory psyche. Characteristic is also a partial reflection of the properties of objects, and not the object as a whole, as well as the instinctive form of perception.
Stages of development of the psyche in phylogeny
Thanks to the evolution and development of living organisms,the nervous system becomes more complicated, the brain and spinal cord, the cortex of the hemispheres are formed and, finally, the brain develops. The cortex of the hemispheres analyzes the information that the environment transmits, is guided by changes and forms new behavior. Stages of development of the psyche get another step - the stage of the perceptual (perceiving) psyche, which is inherent in already perceiving the situation in general: it becomes possible to react immediately to several stimuli and make up the overall picture. In addition to instincts, skills develop that represent a chain of learned movements to achieve a particular goal. It is necessary to emphasize the relationship between the cortex and stable skills. The most highly organized vertebrates (a detachment of primates) develop further, and they observe intellectual behavior.
The stage of intelligence (manual thinking)characterized by a significant complication and development of the central nervous system and, of course, an increase in the brain. It is also characterized by a fairly conscious behavior and the use of tools and other products. But instincts and skills do not lose their significance, playing an important role in life.
Stages of development of the psyche of animals at this levelend, giving way to the development of human consciousness. Man, being the apex of the pyramid of all living organisms, possesses not only a developed brain, but also numerous psychic possibilities (logical and consistent thinking, fantasies, etc.).