Systematics of animals. What it is
Our planet is rich in living organisms. Therefore, the problem of their accounting has long arose. For this, there is a systematics. It is a science that studies and classifies the entire animal and plant world. The systematics of animals is based on the compilation of a system describing all the representatives of this kingdom, including extinct ones. This system is constantly updated.
New data used forclassification, allow the creation of new classes of animals. Insects alone number about one million species. The grouping of animals allows us to trace their historical development, that is, phylogeny.
Systematics of animals shows evolutionfauna. Based on its data, we can say that the simpler forms of animals are replaced by more complex ones that adapt to new environmental conditions.
The process of evolution can not be restored. Therefore, the taxonomy of animals makes it possible to partially trace the development of the animal world.
Any group of animals is divided into smallersubgroup. Taxonomy deals with the distinction of animals, their distribution into groups in the right order. This process involves three stages.
The first stage is to describe the group anddistribution of it by birth. Especially this level is important for those groups that are little-studied or very numerous. This includes many groups of insects.
The second stage is to find the links betweenseparate groups, which can be attributed to high ranks. At the same time, they study morphological, embryological similarities, which indicate the relationship between them. This stage makes it possible to trace how animals changed in the course of evolution.
The third stage involves examining the links betweenseparate species. Here there is a comparison at the population level. Usually it is carried out in well-studied groups. At the same time they find out why this or that species is so diverse.
Systematics of animals gives a complete picture ofrich fauna of the planet. Without this science, the whole course of evolution could not be accurately traced. There would not be a valid database, but only chaotic information.
The object of taxonomy is a taxon. Taxa are groups of populations that occupy a certain place in the classification system.
Each taxon has two categoriessigns. The first category is called typological. It is based on only morphological features. That is, each species has its own structure or a certain type. This is what determines its place in the classification system. This concept is successfully used to study and systematize paleontological finds.
The second category is biological. For living organisms, it is more suitable. Here the preference is given to the criterion of crossing. A separate species is isolated reproductively from other species.
The diversity of living organisms makes them difficultcorrect classification. It is not always possible to ascertain with accuracy whether the selected animals are a separate species or are simply genetically modified individuals characteristic of a given territory. In addition, some species of animals can still change under the influence of the external environment.
But, nevertheless, the importance of animal taxonomy is enormous. It gives each species its name in Latin, which eliminates confusion in the case of using vulgar names.
Today, the systematics is experiencing a period of newdevelopment. We use mathematical methods, computer programs, DNA analysis and many other scientific developments that allow us to get a better idea of the rich animal world of the planet.