The beginning of the development of Siberia
The beginning of the development of Siberia
- Population. The development of Western Siberia began with 16 in. from the foundation of the explorers of Tyumen, Tobolsk, Surgut and other cities. A new stage in the development was the discovery in the middle of 20 in. the largest oil and gas reserves. Currently, in Western Siberia, more than 50% of the population of the eastern zone, the main part in the south along the railways. In the rest of the territory, the distribution is focal in the valleys of rivers and near oil and gas fields. The urban population is 74%; large cities of Omsk, Novosibirsk (millionaires), Barnaul, Novokuznetsk and others.
- at the end of the 16 century, under Tsar Ivan the Terrible.
- Conquest of Siberia
Main article: The Conquest of Siberia
In 1555, the Siberian Khan Yediger recognized the vassal dependence on the Kingdom of Russia and promised to pay Moscow a tribute to the yasak (though, in the promised amount, the tribute was never paid). In 1563, power in the Siberian Khanate was seized by Shibanid Kuchum, who was the grandson of Ibak. He executed Khan Ediger and his brother Bek-Bulat.
The new Siberian Khan made considerable efforts to strengthen the role of Islam in Siberia. Khan Kuchum stopped paying tribute to Moscow, but in 1571 he sent a full yasak to 1000 sables. In 1572, after the Crimean Khan Devlet I Guerai ravaged Moscow, the Siberian Khan Kuchum completely broke his tribute to Moscow. In 1573, Mr. Kuchum sent his nephew Mahmut Quli with a squad with reconnaissance targets outside the Khanate. Mahmut Cooley reached Perm, disturbing the possessions of the Ural merchants Stroganoffs. In 1579, the Stroganovs invited a team of Cossacks (more than 500 people), under the command of Atamans Ermak Timofeevich, Ivan Koltso, Yakov Mikhailov, Nikita Pan and Matvey Meshcheryak to protect themselves against regular attacks from Kuchum.
K. Lebedev. The development of new lands by Russians. Paper, watercolor. 1904
1 September 1581 squad of Cossacks, under the chief command of Ermak, marched behind the Stone Belt (Ural), initiating the colonization of Siberia by the Russian state. The initiative of this campaign, according to the chronicles of Yesipovskaya and Remizovskaya, belonged to Yermak himself, Stroganov's participation was limited to the forced supply of supplies and weapons to the Cossacks.
In 1582, 26 October Ermak mastered Kashlik and began joining the Siberian Khanate to Russia. After suffering defeat from the Cossacks, Kuchum migrated to the south and continued to resist the Russian conquerors until 1598. 20 April 1598, it was defeated by the Tara voivod Andrey Voeikov on the bank of the river. Ob and fled to the Nogai Horde, where he was killed. Ermak was killed in 1584 year. The last khan was Ali, the son of Kuchum.
At the turn of the 16th and 17th centuries, the cities of Tyumen, Tobolsk, Berzov, Surgut, Tara, Obdorsk (Salekhard) were founded by settlers from Russia on the territory of the Siberian Khanate. In 1601 on the river Taz, flowing into the Ob Bay, the city of Mangazeya was founded. This opened the sea route to Western Siberia (the Mangazey Sea Route). With the base of the Narym prison, the Piebald Horde was conquered in the east of the Siberian Khanate.
Tower of the Yakut prison in the museum of local lore. 2002.
In the reign of Mikhail Fyodorovich, the first tsar from the Romanov dynasty, Cossacks and settlers master Eastern Siberia. During the first 18 years of the 17th century, the Russians moved to the Yenisei River. The cities of Tomsk (1604), Krasnoyarsk (1628) and others are founded.
In 1623, the explorer Pianda penetrates the Lena River, where later (1630-e) Yakutsk and other towns are based. In 16371640 years a path was opened from Yakutsk to the Sea of Okhotsk up Aldan, May and Yudoma. When moving along the Yenisei and the Arctic Ocean, industrialists penetrated the mouths of the rivers Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma and Anadyr. The fortification of the Lena (Yakut) region for the Russians was secured by the construction of the Olekminsky prison (1635), Nizhne-Kolymska (1644) and Okhotsk (1648). In 1661 the Irkutsk prison was founded, in 1665 the Selenga prison, in 1666 the Udin prison.
In 16491650 the Cossack ataman Erofei Khabarov reached the Cupid. By the middle of the 17th century, Russian settlements appeared in the Amur region, on the coast of the Sea of Okhotsk, and in Chukotka.
In 1645, the Cossack Vasilii Poyarkov opens the northern coast of Sakhalin.
In 1648, Semyon Dezhnv passes from the mouth of the Kolyma River to the mouth of the Anadyr River and opens the strait between Asia and America.
In 1686, the first silver melting from the Argun or Nerchinsk silver ores took place in Nerchinsk. Afterwards, the Nerchinskiy mountainous district appears here.
In 1689 the Nerchinsk Treaty is concluded, cross-border trade with China begins.