When did the first states appear?
When did the first states appear?
- Well, somewhere 890120 years ago
- A long time ago. Since the man has picked up a cobblestone.
- The first states emerged in Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt and Ancient India at the end of 4 and the beginning of 3, millennium BC. er
- With the disintegration of tribal relations in primitive society: during the neo-revolutionary revolution and the environmental crisis, when humanity shifted from appropriating to production economy, which caused the demographic explosion, the division of labor in agriculture, trade and the top management. There are different theories of the origin of states: Marxist-Leninist (materialistic), theological, psychological, irrigational, contractual, theory of violence, patriarchal, etc.
- when there were surpluses, it became possible to redistribute them within the community. Stand out so-called nobility, ie, those who decided who that. Then we needed protection - there always will be dissatisfied with the decision of the nobility. 🙂 And there was a need for fair or not very laws - as the generally accepted rules of life in the community.
The state was born in Kratz.
Everywhere in different ways. After all, the tribes lived for themselves, but the states were created afterwards.
- The world's oldest countries originated in two southern countries in the valleys of deep rivers approximately at the same time (5 a thousand years ago or a little earlier):
1. Egypt is a country located on both banks of the Nile from the first threshold in the south to the Mediterranean Sea in the north; deserts stretch to the west and east of Egypt. The ancient Egyptians called their country Kemet (Black). By this they distinguished the black fertile land in the Nile Valley from the red, unsuitable for dwelling in the desert. The name Egypt is given by the Greeks. Presumably it comes from one of the names of the ancient capital of the country Hykupta (literally the Fortress of the spirit of Pta, the god-patron of this city).
2. Sumer is an ancient country located in the South Mesopotamia, ie, along the banks of the Euphrates and the Tigris in their lower reaches (the south of present-day Iraq). The name of the country comes from the name of the most ancient population of Sumerians, known to scientists.
Features of environmental conditions
Favorable for farming:
1) a lot of hot sunny days a year;
2) abundance of moisture (the Nile River, the Euphrates. The tigers never dry up);
3) lands with two valuable properties: fertility; softness, which allows the processing of soil tools from wood, stone, horn, copper (method of mining and processing of iron has not yet been discovered).
Unfavorable for people's lives:
1) the abundance of swamps and impassable swamps, in which people and livestock were drowning; clouds of insects carrying dangerous diseases;
2) absence of drillwood (constant need for semi-finished wood);
3) lack of metals: in Egypt, a small amount of gold and copper were kept in the Eastern Desert; in Sumer, metals (as well as building stone) were completely absent;
4) uneven precipitation during the ripening period of bread (Sumer); in Egypt, only in the Nile Delta, it rained regularly, in the rest of the country they sometimes did not happen for several years.
Features of agricultural economy
The basis of economy in the most ancient states was agriculture. Mandatory irrigation works (artificial irrigation of lands) were carried out annually and required coordinated actions of tens and hundreds of people for the construction and repair of irrigation facilities; the general management of irrigation was carried out by the state power. Main irrigation facilities:
canals leading water to places remote from rivers;
protective embankments (dams) that protected crops from excessive moisture during floods;
Shadufs are water-lifting devices, known since the middle of 2 thousand BC. er (Egypt).
Works of farmers. In each ancient country, they had their own characteristics. This is what these works in Egypt represented.
Plowing. The cows were more often dragged to the plow than the bulls: calmer cows were easier to manage, and for plowing soft soil from animals it did not take much strength. After sowing followed the cattle run over the sown field. Cows and sheep trampled grain into the ground and compacted the soil (if this is not done, the grain will dry under the scorching rays of the sun).
Harvest. The ripe bread was pinched by wooden sickles, consisting of a short crescent and a curved cutting part, in which sharp silicon inserts were used as a blade. With 2 thousand BC. e. They also began using sickles with bronze blades.
Molotba was conducted on the current of a round rammed site. Snops thrash solid-grained cattle (donkeys, bulls).
The grain threshed with cattle was full of chaff and all kinds of garbage. With long shovels, the grain was thrown up until it fell down, the wind carried away the chaff and debris.
What were the most ancient states
In their territory, the most ancient states were small (for example, in the Nile Valley in the second half of 4 in the millennium BC, more than forty of them were formed). The center of each state was the fortified city, where the temple of the local patron god and the residence of the ruler was located. The latter was a military leader, and also led the irrigation work. Known that in sumer
- Perhaps we know nothing about the most ancient states. From known - Sumerians, for example.
- The first state is Egypt.